I-CISK recognises that to achieve behavioural change, the active use of climate information in informing decision-making toward climate adaptation and mitigation requires that citizens, stakeholders and decision-makers are at the centre of the design,
creation, implementation and evaluation of climate services. We recognise that the
climate information end-users consult to inform their actions and climate adaptation
decisions is constructed on multiple sources of knowledge, within their own context
and realities, which may include incentives as well as barriers to the uptake of that information. Sources of knowledge include local experiences, knowledge of the weather
system and of adaptation options and their effectiveness, as well as data from climate
science and citizen-science.
The I-CISK framework to co-producing climate services defines a sequence of
iterative steps, as illustrated Figure 2. This starts by co-exploring user needs,
co-identifying relevant local knowledge, perceptions and concerns and co-identifying climatic parameters and thresholds, and relevant spatial and temporal scales
of climate information. It also entails the co-exploration of the behavioural factors,
drivers, and barriers that influence the uptake of climate information. This leads to
the co-design of tailored CS to inform the identified decision processes in a trusted,
understandable, reproducible and effective way. Subsequently, co-creating climate
information products seamlessly across time scales from sub-seasonal to seasonal
through to decadal and climate projection time scales requires methods and tools for
the transformation, visualisation and quality assurance of scientific data. These tailored information products integrate local knowledge and citizen science with scientific
datasets derived from upstream services and climate datasets (e.g. from Copernicus,
S2S Prediction project, EMODnet, GEO, ESA Actions). Following our action-research approach in the seven Living Labs, this co-created climate information product, is implemented and delivered in (pre) operational Climate Services Information Systems, making the co-produced services available to users. The framework address also the capacities of users and the enabling environment for CS adoption. This also includes the development of a vibrant climate service sector, including public and private entities, to ensure sustainability of services provided, and recognizing that this process is cyclical, as operational CS need to be flexible to adapt to changing needs of users, in part influenced by the adoption of the CS themselves.
I-CISK does not stop at providing user-relevant and co-produced climate information, it also explores the potential positive and negative effects of identified adaptation options in the decision-making processes. I-CISK addresses the understanding of bi-directional multiple feedbacks between the human and the climate system and includes the impacts of climate change in order to prevent mal-adaptations. These feedbacks consider the multi-hazard and multi-sector influences of identified adaptation strategies and climate actions at different spatial-temporal scales, as well as of the implemented CS. This novel approach, illustrated in Figure 3, helps to bridge the gap between high-level information on climate change and the climate actions informed by CS. The understanding of these multiple feedbacks will make this high-level information more useful, innovating CS as well as adaptation strategies that contribute to long-term, large-scale climate resilience in Europe.